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Credit score: de Carolis, Ferilli & Macchiarulo.

Social robots, robots that may work together with people and help them of their every day lives, are progressively being launched in quite a few real-world settings. These robots may very well be notably worthwhile for serving to older adults to finish on a regular basis duties extra autonomously, thus doubtlessly enhancing their independence and well-being.

Researchers at College of Bari have been investigating the potential utilizing for ambient assisted residing purposes for quite a few years. Their most up-to-date paper, revealed in UMAP’22 Adjunct: Adjunct Proceedings of the thirtieth ACM Convention on Person Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization, particularly explores the worth of permitting social robots who’re aiding seniors to be taught the relationships between a consumer’s routines and his/her .

“Social robots ought to assist with and, on the identical time, they need to contribute to emotional wellness by contemplating affective components in on a regular basis conditions,” Berardina De Carolis, Stefano Ferilli and Nicola Macciarulo wrote of their paper. “The primary aim of this analysis is to research whether or not it’s doable to be taught relations between the consumer’s affective state state and , made by actions, with assistance from a social robotic, Pepper on this case.”

The “mood-personalized” assisted residing strategy devised by De Carolis and her colleagues relies on a system known as WoMan (Workflor Administration). This technique, launched in one in every of their earlier papers, can repeatedly be taught and refine the routines of customers, utilizing first-order logic reasoning.

Of their current examine, the group applied the WoMan system utilizing the Pepper robotic. Pepper is a semi-humanoid cell robotic manufactured by SoftBank Robotics, which may work together with people and detect their fundamental feelings.

“WoMan can be used as a back-end module of the Every day Diary software operating on the Pepper robotic to gather information regarding and their relation to feelings and temper,” De Carolis, Ferilli and Macciarulo wrote of their paper.

To this point, the group outlined their proposed strategy and investigated whether or not it may well successfully be taught the relationships between a consumer’s every day routines and his/her temper. As well as, they created a proof of idea of their strategy, designing a dialog software for the Pepper robotic known as the DailyDiary (DD).

As its title suggests, the DD software can be utilized to gather annotations summarizing a consumer’s every day routine, actions and moods. The info collected by this software is then analyzed by a machine studying mannequin, to higher perceive how customers are feeling when finishing completely different duties.

“Outcomes of this part of the analysis can be used to evaluate the validity of the strategy in ambient assisted residing homes for seniors to make the social robotic capable of present not solely proactive service help but in addition an affective empathic expertise,” the researchers added of their paper.

Of their preliminary evaluations, De Carolis and her colleagues discovered that their studying mannequin may be taught to foretell every day routines and the relations between actions and a consumer’s temper with glorious accuracy. Of their subsequent research, they plan to develop a whole model of their software and check it in a real-world setting.

These future checks will re-assess their studying mannequin’s accuracy in predicting customers’ actions and moods in a real-world setting, As well as, they may attempt to decide how senior customers expertise the DD software and the Pepper operating it, confirming whether or not the group’s strategy can be helpful and well-accepted by seniors.

If the researchers’ future evaluations go effectively, their work may assist the event of extra “seemingly empathic” robots, which may adapt their habits to fulfill each the bodily and emotional wants of susceptible customers.


Study explores how older adults react while interacting with humanoid robots


Extra data:
Berardina de Carolis et al, Ambient Assisted Residing and Social Robots: In the direction of Studying Relations between Person’s Every day Routines and Temper, Adjunct Proceedings of the thirtieth ACM Convention on Person Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization (2022). DOI: 10.1145/3511047.3537691

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Machine Learning

Superior phase recovery and hologram reconstruction using a deep neural network

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Superior phase recovery and hologram reconstruction using a deep neural network

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Fourier Imager Community (FIN): A deep neural community for hologram reconstruction with superior exterior generalization. Credit score: Ozcan Lab @ UCLA

Deep studying has achieved benchmark outcomes for numerous imaging duties, together with holographic microscopy, the place a necessary step is to get better the part info of samples utilizing intensity-only measurements. By coaching on well-designed datasets, deep neural networks have confirmed to outperform classical part retrieval and hologram reconstruction algorithms by way of accuracy and computational effectivity. Nonetheless, mannequin generalization, which refers to extending the neural networks’ capabilities to new sorts of samples by no means seen through the coaching, stays a problem for present deep studying fashions.

UCLA researchers have lately created a novel structure, termed Fourier Imager Community (FIN), which demonstrated unprecedented generalization to unseen pattern sorts, additionally reaching superior computational pace in part retrieval and holographic picture reconstruction duties. On this new method, they launched spatial Fourier rework modules that allow the neural community to make the most of the spatial frequencies of the entire picture. UCLA researchers educated their FIN mannequin on human lung tissue samples and demonstrated its superior generalization by reconstructing the holograms of human prostate and salivary gland tissue sections, and Pap smear samples, which had been by no means seen within the coaching part.

Printed in Gentle: Science & Purposes, this new -based framework is reported to realize greater picture reconstruction accuracy in comparison with the classical hologram reconstruction algorithms and the state-of-the-art , whereas shortening the reconstruction time by ~50 occasions. This new deep studying framework might be broadly used to create extremely generalizable neural networks for numerous microscopic imaging and laptop imaginative and prescient duties.

This analysis was led by Dr. Aydogan Ozcan, Chancellor’s Professor and Volgenau Chair for Engineering Innovation at UCLA and HHMI Professor with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The opposite authors of this work embrace Hanlong Chen, Luzhe Huang, and Tairan Liu, all from the Electrical and Pc Engineering division at UCLA. Prof. Ozcan additionally has UCLA school appointments within the bioengineering and surgical procedure departments and is an affiliate director of the California NanoSystems Institute.


Faster holographic imaging using recurrent neural networks


Extra info:
Hanlong Chen et al, Fourier Imager Community (FIN): A deep neural community for hologram reconstruction with superior exterior generalization, Gentle: Science & Purposes (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41377-022-00949-8

Quotation:
Superior part restoration and hologram reconstruction utilizing a deep neural community (2022, August 16)
retrieved 17 August 2022
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Machine Learning

Algorithm learns to correct 3D printing errors for different parts, materials and systems

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Algorithm learns to correct 3D printing errors for different parts, materials and systems

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Instance picture of the 3D printer nozzle utilized by a machine studying algorithm to detect and proper errors in actual time. Highlighted areas present elements of the picture that the system focuses on, offering potential insights into how the algorithm makes predictions. Credit score: Douglas Brion

Engineers have created clever 3D printers that may rapidly detect and proper errors, even in beforehand unseen designs, or unfamiliar supplies like ketchup and mayonnaise, by studying from the experiences of different machines.

The engineers, from the College of Cambridge, developed a machine studying algorithm that may detect and proper all kinds of various errors in actual time, and could be simply added to new or present machines to reinforce their capabilities. 3D printers utilizing the algorithm might additionally discover ways to print new supplies by themselves. Particulars of their low-cost method are reported within the journal Nature Communications.

3D has the potential to revolutionize the manufacturing of advanced and customised components, comparable to plane parts, personalised medical implants, and even intricate sweets, and will additionally remodel manufacturing provide chains. Nonetheless, it’s also susceptible to manufacturing errors, from small-scale inaccuracies and mechanical weaknesses by means of to whole construct failures.

At present, the way in which to forestall or right these errors is for a talented employee to look at the method. The employee should acknowledge an (a problem even for the educated eye), cease the print, take away the half, and modify settings for a brand new half. If a brand new materials or printer is used, the method takes extra time because the employee learns the brand new setup. Even then, errors could also be missed as staff can’t constantly observe a number of printers on the identical time, particularly for lengthy prints.

“3D printing is difficult as a result of there’s so much that may go unsuitable, and so very often 3D prints will fail,” mentioned Dr. Sebastian Pattinson from Cambridge’s Division of Engineering, the paper’s senior creator. “When that occurs, all the materials and time and energy that you simply used is misplaced.”

Engineers have been creating automated 3D printing monitoring, however present methods can solely detect a restricted vary of errors in a single half, one materials and one printing system.

“What’s actually wanted is a ‘‘ system for 3D printing,” mentioned first creator Douglas Brion, additionally from the Division of Engineering. “A driverless automotive can be ineffective if it solely labored on one street or in a single city—it must study to generalize throughout , cities, and even nations. Equally, a ‘driverless’ printer should work for a number of components, supplies, and printing situations.”

Brion and Pattinson say the algorithm they’ve developed may very well be the ‘driverless automotive’ engineers have been searching for.

“What this implies is that you might have an algorithm that may take a look at all the completely different printers that you simply’re working, always monitoring and making modifications as wanted—principally doing what a human cannot do,” mentioned Pattinson.

The researchers educated a deep studying laptop imaginative and prescient mannequin by displaying it round 950,000 photos captured mechanically throughout the manufacturing of 192 printed objects. Every of the pictures was labeled with the printer’s settings, such because the velocity and temperature of the printing nozzle and circulate fee of the printing materials. The mannequin additionally obtained details about how far these settings had been from good values, permitting the algorithm to learn the way errors come up.

“As soon as educated, the algorithm can determine simply by taking a look at a picture which setting is right and which is unsuitable—is a selected setting too excessive or too low, for instance, after which apply the suitable correction,” mentioned Pattinson. “And the cool factor is that printers that use this method may very well be constantly gathering knowledge, so the algorithm may very well be regularly bettering as effectively.”

Utilizing this method, Brion and Pattinson had been in a position to make an algorithm that’s generalizable—in different phrases, it may be utilized to determine and proper errors in unfamiliar objects or supplies, and even in new printing methods.

“Whenever you’re printing with a nozzle, then regardless of the fabric you are utilizing—polymers, concrete, ketchup, or no matter—you will get comparable errors,” mentioned Brion. “For instance, if the nozzle is shifting too quick, you typically find yourself with blobs of fabric, or in case you’re pushing out an excessive amount of materials, then the printed strains will overlap forming creases.

“Errors that come up from comparable settings can have comparable options, it doesn’t matter what half is being printed or what materials is getting used. As a result of our algorithm realized basic options shared throughout completely different supplies, it might say ‘Oh, the printed strains are forming creases, due to this fact we’re seemingly pushing out an excessive amount of materials’.”

Because of this, the algorithm that was educated utilizing just one type of materials and printing system was in a position to detect and proper errors in several supplies, from engineering polymers to even ketchup and mayonnaise, on a special type of printing system.

Sooner or later, the educated may very well be extra environment friendly and dependable than a human operator at recognizing errors. This may very well be essential for high quality management in purposes the place part failure might have critical penalties.

With the help of Cambridge Enterprise, the College’s commercialization arm, Brion has shaped Matta, a spin-out firm that may develop the know-how for industrial purposes.

“We’re turning our consideration to how this may work in high-value industries such because the aerospace, energy, and automotive sectors, the place 3D printing applied sciences are used to fabricate and costly components,” mentioned Brion. “It’d take days or perhaps weeks to finish a single part at a price of 1000’s of kilos. An error that happens initially may not be detected till the half is accomplished and inspected. Our method would spot the error in actual time, considerably bettering manufacturing productiveness.”


Machine-learning model monitors and adjusts 3D printing process to correct errors in real-time


Extra data:
Douglas A. J. Brion et al, Generalisable 3D printing error detection and correction through multi-head neural networks, Nature Communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-31985-y

Quotation:
Algorithm learns to right 3D printing errors for various components, supplies and methods (2022, August 16)
retrieved 16 August 2022
from https://techxplore.com/information/2022-08-algorithm-3d-errors-materials.html

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Uncovering nature’s patterns at the atomic scale in living color

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Machine studying offers a shade coded map of X-ray knowledge based mostly on the temperature dependence of every area. X-TEC recognized the places of two units of sharp peaks (yellow and green squares) within the knowledge, in addition to diffuse scattering halos round them (purple and blue). Credit score: Argonne Nationwide Laboratory

Coloration coding makes aerial maps rather more simply understood. Via shade, we will inform at a look the place there’s a highway, forest, desert, metropolis, river or lake.

Working with a number of universities, the U.S. Division of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne Nationwide Laboratory has devised a way for creating color-coded graphs of enormous volumes of information from X-ray evaluation. This new device makes use of computational knowledge sorting to search out clusters associated to bodily properties, akin to an atomic distortion in a . It ought to drastically speed up future analysis on structural modifications on the atomic scale induced by various temperature.

The analysis staff printed their findings within the Proceedings of the Nationwide Academy of Sciences in an article titled “Harnessing interpretable and unsupervised to handle huge knowledge from fashionable X-ray diffraction.”

“Our methodology makes use of machine studying to quickly analyze immense quantities of information from X-ray diffraction,” mentioned Raymond Osborn, senior physicist in Argonne’s Supplies Science division. “What might need taken us months previously now takes a couple of quarter hour, with rather more fine-grained outcomes.”

For over a century, X-ray diffraction (or XRD) has been probably the most fruitful of all scientific strategies for analyzing supplies. It has supplied key data on the 3D of innumerable technologically necessary supplies.

In current a long time, the quantity of information being produced in XRD experiments has elevated dramatically at massive amenities such because the Superior Photon Supply (APS), a DOE Workplace of Science person facility at Argonne. Sorely missing, nevertheless, are evaluation strategies that may address these immense knowledge units.

The staff calls their new methodology X-ray Temperature Clustering, or XTEC for brief. It accelerates supplies discoveries by speedy clustering and shade coding of enormous X-ray knowledge units to disclose beforehand hidden structural modifications that happen as temperature will increase or decreases. A typical massive knowledge set could be 10,000 gigabytes, equal to roughly 3 million songs of streaming music.

XTEC attracts on the ability of unsupervised machine studying, utilizing strategies developed for this undertaking at Cornell College. This machine studying doesn’t rely on preliminary coaching and studying with knowledge already properly studied. As a substitute, it learns by discovering patterns and clusters in massive knowledge units with out such coaching. These patterns are then represented by shade coding.

“For instance, XTEC would possibly assign purple to knowledge cluster one, which is related to a sure property that modifications with temperature in a selected approach,” Osborn mentioned. “Then, cluster two could be blue, and related to one other property with a special temperature dependence, and so forth. The colours inform whether or not every cluster represents the equal of a highway, forest or lake in an aerial map.”

As a take a look at case, XTEC analyzed knowledge from beamline 6-ID-D on the APS, taken from two crystalline supplies which might be superconducting at temperatures near absolute zero. At this ultralow temperature, these supplies swap to a superconducting state, providing no resistance to electrical present. Extra necessary for this examine, different uncommon options emerge at larger temperatures associated to modifications within the materials construction.

By making use of XTEC, the staff extracted an unprecedented quantity of details about modifications in atomic construction at totally different temperatures. These embrace not solely distortions within the orderly association of atoms within the materials, but in addition fluctuations that happen when such modifications occur.

“Due to machine studying, we’re in a position to see supplies’ habits not seen by standard XRD,” Osborn mentioned. “And our methodology is relevant to many huge knowledge issues in not solely superconductors, but in addition batteries, {solar} cells, and any temperature-sensitive gadget.”

The APS is present process a large improve that can improve the brightness of its X-ray beams by as much as 500 instances. Together with the improve will come a major improve in knowledge collected on the APS, and machine studying methods will probably be important to analyzing that knowledge in a well timed method.


Harnessing machine learning to analyze quantum material


Extra data:
Harnessing Interpretable and Unsupervised Machine Studying to Handle Massive Information from Trendy X-ray Diffraction, arXiv:2008.03275 [cond-mat.str-el] arxiv.org/abs/2008.03275

Quotation:
Uncovering nature’s patterns on the atomic scale in residing shade (2022, August 16)
retrieved 16 August 2022
from https://techxplore.com/information/2022-08-uncovering-nature-patterns-atomic-scale.html

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