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  1. What are Clusters?
  2. What is Clustering?
  3. Why Clustering?
  4. Types of Clustering Methods/ Algorithms
  5. Common Clustering Algorithms
  6. Applications of Clustering

Machine Learning issues take care of an excessive amount of knowledge and rely closely on the algorithms which can be used to coach the mannequin. There are numerous approaches and algorithms to coach a machine studying mannequin based mostly on the issue at hand. Supervised and unsupervised studying are the 2 most distinguished of those approaches. An necessary real-life downside of promoting a services or products to a selected audience will be simply resolved with the assistance of a type of unsupervised studying often known as Clustering. This text will clarify clustering algorithms together with real-life issues and examples. Allow us to begin with understanding what clustering is.

What are Clusters?

The phrase cluster is derived from an previous English phrase, ‘clyster, ‘ that means a bunch. A cluster is a bunch of comparable issues or folks positioned or occurring intently collectively. Often, all factors in a cluster depict related traits; due to this fact, machine studying may very well be used to establish traits and segregate these clusters. This makes the premise of many purposes of machine studying that clear up knowledge issues throughout industries.

What’s Clustering?

Because the identify suggests, clustering includes dividing knowledge factors into a number of clusters of comparable values. In different phrases, the target of clustering is to segregate teams with related traits and bundle them collectively into completely different clusters. It’s ideally the implementation of human cognitive functionality in machines enabling them to acknowledge completely different objects and differentiate between them based mostly on their pure properties. Not like people, it is extremely tough for a machine to establish an apple or an orange until correctly educated on an enormous related dataset. Unsupervised studying algorithms obtain this coaching, particularly clustering.  

Merely put, clusters are the gathering of knowledge factors which have related values or attributes and clustering algorithms are the strategies to group related knowledge factors into completely different clusters based mostly on their values or attributes. 

For instance, the info factors clustered collectively will be thought of as one group or cluster. Therefore the diagram under has two clusters (differentiated by colour for illustration). 

clustering algorithms in Machine Learning

Why Clustering? 

When you’re working with massive datasets, an environment friendly strategy to analyze them is to first divide the info into logical groupings, aka clusters. This manner, you can extract worth from a big set of unstructured knowledge. It lets you look by means of the info to drag out some patterns or constructions earlier than going deeper into analyzing the info for particular findings. 

Organizing knowledge into clusters helps establish the info’s underlying construction and finds purposes throughout industries. For instance, clustering may very well be used to categorise ailments within the subject of medical science and can be utilized in buyer classification in advertising and marketing analysis. 

In some purposes, knowledge partitioning is the ultimate purpose. However, clustering can be a prerequisite to getting ready for different artificial intelligence or machine learning issues. It’s an environment friendly approach for data discovery in knowledge within the type of recurring patterns, underlying guidelines, and extra. Attempt to be taught extra about clustering on this free course: Customer Segmentation using Clustering

Forms of Clustering Strategies/ Algorithms

Given the subjective nature of the clustering duties, there are numerous algorithms that swimsuit several types of clustering issues. Every downside has a special algorithm that outline similarity amongst two knowledge factors, therefore it requires an algorithm that most closely fits the target of clustering. Right now, there are greater than 100 identified machine studying algorithms for clustering.

A couple of Forms of Clustering Algorithms

Because the identify signifies, connectivity fashions are likely to classify knowledge factors based mostly on their closeness of knowledge factors. It’s based mostly on the notion that the info factors nearer to one another depict extra related traits in comparison with these positioned farther away. The algorithm helps an in depth hierarchy of clusters that may merge with one another at sure factors. It isn’t restricted to a single partitioning of the dataset. 

The selection of distance operate is subjective and should fluctuate with every clustering utility. There are additionally two completely different approaches to addressing a clustering downside with connectivity fashions. First is the place all knowledge factors are labeled into separate clusters after which aggregated as the gap decreases. The second strategy is the place the entire dataset is assessed as one cluster after which partitioned into a number of clusters as the gap will increase. Regardless that the mannequin is well interpretable, it lacks the scalability to course of greater datasets. 

Distribution fashions are based mostly on the likelihood of all knowledge factors in a cluster belonging to the identical distribution, i.e., Regular distribution or Gaussian distribution. The slight disadvantage is that the mannequin is extremely liable to affected by overfitting. A well known instance of this mannequin is the expectation-maximization algorithm.

These fashions search the info house for various densities of knowledge factors and isolate the completely different density areas. It then assigns the info factors inside the similar area as clusters. DBSCAN and OPTICS are the 2 commonest examples of density fashions. 

Centroid fashions are iterative clustering algorithms the place similarity between knowledge factors is derived based mostly on their closeness to the cluster’s centroid. The centroid (heart of the cluster) is fashioned to make sure that the gap of the info factors is minimal from the middle. The answer for such clustering issues is normally approximated over a number of trials. An instance of centroid fashions is the Ok-means algorithm. 

Frequent Clustering Algorithms

Ok-Means Clustering

Ok-Means is by far the preferred clustering algorithm, on condition that it is extremely simple to know and apply to a variety of knowledge science and machine learning problems. Right here’s how one can apply the Ok-Means algorithm to your clustering downside.

Step one is randomly deciding on a lot of clusters, every of which is represented by a variable ‘ok’. Subsequent, every cluster is assigned a centroid, i.e., the middle of that specific cluster. It is very important outline the centroids as far off from one another as doable to scale back variation. After all of the centroids are outlined, every knowledge level is assigned to the cluster whose centroid is on the closest distance. 

As soon as all knowledge factors are assigned to respective clusters, the centroid is once more assigned for every cluster. As soon as once more, all knowledge factors are rearranged in particular clusters based mostly on their distance from the newly outlined centroids. This course of is repeated till the centroids cease shifting from their positions. 

Ok-Means algorithm works wonders in grouping new knowledge. A few of the sensible purposes of this algorithm are in sensor measurements, audio detection, and picture segmentation. 

Allow us to take a look on the R implementation of Ok Means Clustering.

Ok Means clustering with ‘R’

  • Having a look on the first few data of the dataset utilizing the top() operate
##   Sepal.Size Sepal.Width Petal.Size Petal.Width Species
## 1          5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2  setosa
## 2          4.9         3.0          1.4         0.2  setosa
## 3          4.7         3.2          1.3         0.2  setosa
## 4          4.6         3.1          1.5         0.2  setosa
## 5          5.0         3.6          1.4         0.2  setosa
## 6          5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4  setosa
  • Eradicating the explicit column ‘Species’ as a result of k-means will be utilized solely on numerical columns<- iris[,c(1,2,3,4)]

##   Sepal.Size Sepal.Width Petal.Size Petal.Width
## 1          5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2
## 2          4.9         3.0          1.4         0.2
## 3          4.7         3.2          1.3         0.2
## 4          4.6         3.1          1.5         0.2
## 5          5.0         3.6          1.4         0.2
## 6          5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4
  • Making a scree-plot to establish the perfect variety of clusters
for(ok in 1:5){
  clust=kmeans(, facilities=ok, nstart=5)
plot(c(1:5), totWss, sort="b", xlab="Variety of Clusters",
    ylab="sum of 'Inside teams sum of squares'") 
clustering algorithms in Machine Learning
  • Visualizing the clustering 

## Warning: package deal 'fpc' was constructed beneath R model 3.6.2

clus <- kmeans(, facilities=3)

plotcluster(, clus$cluster)
clustering algorithms in Machine Learning
clusplot(, clus$cluster, colour=TRUE,shade = T)
clustering algorithms in Machine Learning
  • Including the clusters to the unique dataset<-cbind(,cluster=clus$cluster) 

##   Sepal.Size Sepal.Width Petal.Size Petal.Width cluster
## 1          5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2       1
## 2          4.9         3.0          1.4         0.2       1
## 3          4.7         3.2          1.3         0.2       1
## 4          4.6         3.1          1.5         0.2       1
## 5          5.0         3.6          1.4         0.2       1
## 6          5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4       1

Density-Based mostly Spatial Clustering of Functions With Noise (DBSCAN)

DBSCAN is the commonest density-based clustering algorithm and is broadly used. The algorithm picks an arbitrary place to begin, and the neighborhood up to now is extracted utilizing a distance epsilon ‘ε’. All of the factors which can be inside the distance epsilon are the neighborhood factors. If these factors are enough in quantity, then the clustering course of begins, and we get our first cluster. If there aren’t sufficient neighboring knowledge factors, then the primary level is labeled noise.

For every level on this first cluster, the neighboring knowledge factors (the one which is inside the epsilon distance with the respective level) are additionally added to the identical cluster. The method is repeated for every level within the cluster till there aren’t any extra knowledge factors that may be added. 

As soon as we’re carried out with the present cluster, an unvisited level is taken as the primary knowledge level of the following cluster, and all neighboring factors are labeled into this cluster. This course of is repeated till all factors are marked ‘visited’. 

DBSCAN has some benefits as in comparison with different clustering algorithms:

  1. It doesn’t require a pre-set variety of clusters
  2. Identifies outliers as noise
  3. Skill to seek out arbitrarily formed and sized clusters simply

Implementing DBSCAN with Python

from sklearn import datasets
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from sklearn.cluster import DBSCAN

iris = datasets.load_iris()
x = iris.knowledge[:, :4]  # we solely take the primary two options.
cluster_D = DBSC.fit_predict(x)
[ 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 -1  0  0  0  0  0  0
  0  0  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 -1  1  1 -1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 -1  1  1  1
  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 -1  1  1  1  1  1 -1  1  1
  1  1 -1  1  1  1  1  1  1 -1 -1  1 -1 -1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 -1 -1  1
  1  1 -1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 -1  1  1 -1 -1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1
  1  1  1  1  1  1]
<matplotlib.collections.PathCollection at 0x7f38b0c48160>

Hierarchical Clustering 

Hierarchical Clustering is categorized into divisive and agglomerative clustering. Principally, these algorithms have clusters sorted in an order based mostly on the hierarchy in knowledge similarity observations.

Divisive Clustering, or the top-down strategy, teams all the info factors in a single cluster. Then it divides it into two clusters with the least similarity to one another. The method is repeated, and clusters are divided till there is no such thing as a extra scope for doing so. 

Agglomerative Clustering, or the bottom-up strategy, assigns every knowledge level as a cluster and aggregates probably the most related clusters. This basically means bringing related knowledge collectively right into a cluster. 

Out of the 2 approaches, Divisive Clustering is extra correct. However then, it once more depends upon the kind of downside and the character of the out there dataset to determine which strategy to use to a selected clustering downside in Machine Studying. 

Implementing Hierarchical Clustering with Python

#Import libraries
from sklearn import datasets
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from sklearn.cluster import AgglomerativeClustering

#import the dataset
iris = datasets.load_iris()
x = iris.knowledge[:, :4]  # we solely take the primary two options.
hier_clustering = AgglomerativeClustering(3)
clusters_h = hier_clustering.fit_predict(x)
print(clusters_h )
plt.scatter(x[:,0],x[:,1],c=clusters_h ,cmap='rainbow')
[1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 2 2 0 2 2 2 2
 2 2 0 0 2 2 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 2 2 2 0 2 2 2 0 2 2 2 0 2
 2 0]
<matplotlib.collections.PathCollection at 0x7f38b0bcbb00>

Functions of Clustering 

Clustering has various purposes throughout industries and is an efficient resolution to a plethora of machine studying issues.

  • It’s utilized in market analysis to characterize and uncover a related buyer bases and audiences.
  • Classifying completely different species of vegetation and animals with the assistance of picture recognition methods
  • It helps in deriving plant and animal taxonomies and classifies genes with related functionalities to realize perception into constructions inherent to populations.
  • It’s relevant in metropolis planning to establish teams of homes and different amenities in keeping with their sort, worth, and geographic coordinates.
  • It additionally identifies areas of comparable land use and classifies them as agricultural, industrial, industrial, residential, and so on.
  • Classifies paperwork on the internet for data discovery
  • Applies nicely as a knowledge mining operate to realize insights into knowledge distribution and observe traits of various clusters
  • Identifies credit score and insurance coverage frauds when utilized in outlier detection purposes
  • Useful in figuring out high-risk zones by learning earthquake-affected areas (relevant for different pure hazards too)
  • A easy utility may very well be in libraries to cluster books based mostly on the subjects, style, and different traits
  • An necessary utility is into figuring out most cancers cells by classifying them towards wholesome cells
  • Serps present search outcomes based mostly on the closest related object to a search question utilizing clustering methods
  • Wi-fi networks use varied clustering algorithms to enhance energy consumption and optimise knowledge transmission
  • Hashtags on social media additionally use clustering methods to categorise all posts with the identical hashtag beneath one stream

On this article, we mentioned completely different clustering algorithms in Machine Studying. Whereas there may be a lot extra to unsupervised studying and machine studying as an entire, this text particularly attracts consideration to clustering algorithms in Machine Studying and their purposes. If you wish to be taught extra about machine studying ideas, head to our blog. Additionally, for those who want to pursue a profession in Machine Studying, then upskill with Nice Studying’s PG program in Machine Learning.

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How self-driving cars and human-driven cars could share the road



How self-driving cars and human-driven cars could share the road

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Credit score: Blended-Autonomy Period of Transportation: Resilience & Autonomous Fleet Administration.

Akin to when Mannequin Ts traveled alongside horses and buggies, autonomous autos (AVs) and human-driven autos (HVs) will sometime share highway. Tips on how to finest handle the rise of AVs is the subject of a brand new Carnegie Mellon coverage temporary, Blended-Autonomy Period of Transportation: Resilience & Autonomous Fleet Administration.

Debate continues as to when AVs will dominate our streets, however one of many temporary’s authors, Carlee Joe-Wong, says that “as soon as AVs start to deploy, there’s in all probability not going to be any going again. So, there may be want to begin speaking about insurance policies now, to review them completely and get them proper by the point AVs arrive.”

Joe-Wong, an affiliate professor {of electrical} and laptop engineering, and the analysis group requested themselves “what’s totally different when you’ve AVs within the combine in comparison with if you happen to simply have HVs? We realized that one of many primary variations between AVs and HVs is that AVs are altruistic and HVs are egocentric.”

AVs can anticipate what’s going to occur and reroute themselves, for instance within the occasion of highway building or an accident. Programmed to function safely and observe guidelines, AVs can take altruistic actions that profit different autos and never simply themselves. People in a rush, will not be so beneficiant with their time.

The worth of egocentric driving turns into evident when analyzing . As egocentric behaving automobiles transfer out and in of a site visitors system, ultimately the system will attain equilibrium, a balanced state, however site visitors will not be flowing as effectively because it may. For instance, equilibrium might be reached when site visitors snarls alongside bumper-to-bumper. “Generally equilibrium is much from optimum,” says Joe-Wong.

The researchers imagine altruism may enhance site visitors stream by avoiding suboptimal equilibria, and never all people needs to be a pleasant man to enhance journey occasions. In simulations, altruistic states come into play when AVs make up 20% to 50% of the autos on the highway. The report suggests methods to reward altruism, together with toll exemptions, parking reductions, and many others.

Discovering the very best working insurance policies for AV fleets is one other matter lined within the report. AVs have the capability to work in sync, but centrally controlling hundreds of AVs will result in computation points and communication delays. The researchers need to strike a stability between centralized and decentralized insurance policies utilizing reinforcement studying, a machine studying coaching methodology.

The engineers thought of how AVs make selections. How does machine studying assist on this course of, and what kinds of selections have the most important affect? In response to Joe-Wong, “Below some situations, you actually need reinforcement studying intelligence, however in different situations, that reinforcement studying is simply telling you to do what you in all probability would have performed anyhow.”

The group means that fleet operators prepare fashions to handle AV fleets domestically. If new site visitors patterns happen, then the fashions are up to date, particularly to direct folks approach from incidents. Nevertheless, if site visitors flows unabated, then fewer updates are wanted, which reduces the communications between AVs on the highway and AVs reporting again to a centralized server.

The ultimate downside the researchers examined was learn how to take care of and keep away from cascading failures that happen when a failure in a system triggers a sequence of occasions that result in a networkwide failure.

Working at optimum equilibrium, making use of , and having a better proportion of collaborative AVs will scale back congestion. Nevertheless, to handle cascading failures, the researchers factored in different modes of transportation present in city networks. The researchers added bus, subway, railway, and bike-sharing techniques to their fashions, and so they had been in a position to present that if passengers had been adjusted between various modes of transportations this might maximize the usage of the entire community and stop it from overloading and failing.

Primarily based on their findings, the group recommends that when planning businesses create site visitors stream redistribution insurance policies for AVs they think about learn how to incorporate a number of interdependent transportation techniques to maintain folks transferring.

Within the period of blended autonomy, altruistic AVs may act as coordinators that maintain site visitors flowing by eliciting constructive actions from HVs. Though it’s going to take time earlier than AVs outnumber human-driven autos, all drivers will discover improved site visitors flows with only a partial adaptation of AVs.

Centralized traffic algorithms to help drivers avoid congestion

Extra info:
Transient: … e_summer_2021-22.pdf

Enjoying good: How self-driving automobiles and human-driven automobiles may share the highway (2022, October 3)
retrieved 3 October 2022

This doc is topic to copyright. Aside from any honest dealing for the aim of personal research or analysis, no
half could also be reproduced with out the written permission. The content material is offered for info functions solely.

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Using AI to target a laser for killing roaches



Using AI to target a laser for killing roaches

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Abstract diagram of the laser setup: 1—clear field containing cockroaches, 2—Pi cameras, 3—Jetson nano, 4—laser, 5—galvanometer, 6—laser beam, L—distance between laser machine and goal. Credit score: Oriental Bugs (2022). DOI: 10.1080/00305316.2022.2121777

A trio of researchers from Heriot-Watt College, College Paul Sabatier and the College of Sussex has developed an AI-based machine geared up with a laser that can be utilized to shoot and kill roaches robotically. Of their paper printed within the journal Oriental Bugs, Ildar Rakhmatulin, Mathieu Lihoreau and Jose Pueyo, respectively, describe the machine and its efficiency when examined on actual bugs.

Many makes an attempt have been made to create merchandise designed to kill roaches, with various levels of success. One severe disadvantage to most such merchandise is that pesticides could be hazardous to individuals, pets and the atmosphere on the whole. On this new effort, the researchers have taken an entire new strategy to the issue—killing with a laser beam.

One of many staff members, Ildar Rakhmatulin, had prior expertise with utilizing to kill bugs. He and his colleagues had developed an AI-based machine to kill mosquitoes. On this new effort, the researchers modified the sooner machine to concentrate on cockroaches.

The design was fairly easy. The researchers started with a Jetson Nano—a small digital machine runs machine-learning software program. They added two cameras, a galvanometer and a configurable laser. The galvanometer was used to just accept knowledge from the AI unit and to make use of what it acquired to vary the path of the laser.

As soon as the machine was constructed, the researchers examined it of their lab. They discovered that their machine might precisely determine and shoot . In addition they discovered that they might wonderful tune the laser to permit for several types of hits, much like the “Star Trek” phaser. They might stun the cockroach, if most well-liked, which the researchers famous typically led to the sufferer altering its directional path. Or alternatively, they might set the laser to kill and it will do exactly that.

The researchers insist that they haven’t any want to market their machine and have posted the photographs used for coaching on GitHub and their monitoring dataset on Anybody who needs is free to make a tool of their very own utilizing the technique outlined of their paper. They word that the fee runs about $250. In addition they word that those that select to take action ought to take care as a result of the laser used may cause blindness if directed into the attention.

Bzigo marks mosquitoes for death

Extra info:
Ildar Rakhmatulin et al, Selective neutralisation and deterring of cockroaches with laser automated by machine imaginative and prescient, Oriental Bugs (2022). DOI: 10.1080/00305316.2022.2121777


Kaggle: … -a-cockroach-at-home

© 2022 Science X Community

Utilizing AI to focus on a laser for killing roaches (2022, October 3)
retrieved 3 October 2022

This doc is topic to copyright. Aside from any truthful dealing for the aim of personal research or analysis, no
half could also be reproduced with out the written permission. The content material is supplied for info functions solely.

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Tesla’s AI supercomputer tripped the power grid



Tesla’s AI supercomputer tripped the power grid

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Tesla’s purpose-built AI supercomputer ‘Dojo’ is so highly effective that it tripped the ability grid.

Dojo was unveiled at Tesla’s annual AI Day final 12 months however the mission was nonetheless in its infancy. At AI Day 2022, Tesla unveiled the progress it has made with Dojo over the course of the 12 months.

The supercomputer has transitioned from only a chip and coaching tiles right into a full cupboard. Tesla claims that it may possibly change six GPU packing containers with a single Dojo tile, which it says is cheaper than one GPU field.

Per tray, there are six Dojo tiles. Tesla claims that every tray is equal to “three to 4 full-loaded supercomputer racks”. Two trays can slot in a single Dojo cupboard with a number meeting.

Such a supercomputer naturally has a big energy draw. Dojo requires a lot energy that it managed to journey the grid in Palo Alto.

“Earlier this 12 months, we began load testing our energy and cooling infrastructure. We had been capable of push it over 2 MW earlier than we tripped our substation and obtained a name from town,” mentioned Invoice Chang, Tesla’s Principal System Engineer for Dojo.

In an effort to operate, Tesla needed to construct customized infrastructure for Dojo with its personal high-powered cooling and energy system.

An ‘ExaPOD’ (consisting of some Dojo cupboards) has the next specs:

  • 1.1 EFLOP
  • 1.3TB SRAM
  • 13TB DRAM

Seven ExaPODs are presently deliberate to be housed in Palo Alto.

Dojo is purpose-built for AI and can drastically enhance Tesla’s capacity to coach neural nets utilizing video information from its automobiles. These neural nets shall be essential for Tesla’s self-driving efforts and its humanoid robotic ‘Optimus’, which additionally made an look throughout this 12 months’s occasion.


Optimus was additionally first unveiled final 12 months and was much more in its infancy than Dojo. The truth is, all it was on the time was an individual in a spandex go well with and a few PowerPoint slides.

Whereas it’s clear that Optimus nonetheless has an extended solution to go earlier than it may possibly do the procuring and perform harmful handbook labour duties, as Tesla envisions, we not less than noticed a working prototype of the robotic at AI Day 2022.

“I do need to set some expectations with respect to our Optimus robotic,” mentioned Tesla CEO Elon Musk. “As you already know, final 12 months it was only a particular person in a robotic go well with. However, we’ve come a great distance, and in comparison with that it’s going to be very spectacular.”

Optimus can now stroll round and, if connected to equipment from the ceiling, do some fundamental duties like watering crops:

The prototype of Optimus was reportedly developed previously six months and Tesla is hoping to get a working design throughout the “subsequent few months… or years”. The worth tag is “most likely lower than $20,000”.

All the main points of Optimus are nonetheless obscure in the intervening time, however not less than there’s extra certainty across the Dojo supercomputer.

Want to learn more about AI and big data from industry leaders? Check out AI & Big Data Expo going down in Amsterdam, California, and London.

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